The Fifth Column 

Oakland’s students write essays about police brutality

Students from a high school in Oakland are asked to write about the police in their community. Here are the responses:

It’s Not Just Getting Beaten Up by 

In Oakland, California, why do our protectors abuse us for no reason? Police brutality is a controversial topic. Everyone here, and I bet even everyone outside of here, knows about at least one Oakland police brutality case. For example, we can bring up the shooting of Oscar Grant at the Fruitvale Bart Station or the Tupac situation in the 1990’s. Police brutality has always been around and I want to shine some intel on how it affects Oakland. Based on many articles and 3 interviews, Police brutality affects the Oakland community members largely because they receive physical and emotional harm.

How does police brutality affect Oakland? The pain the Oakland Police Department (OPD) inflicts on Oakland residents can go from getting harmed from a police officer, all the way to losing a loved one. As stated by one of my interviewees about if police brutality affects Oakland she said, “Absolutely, there is a disproportionate amount of police brutality taken out on Black and Brown people. Especially Black men and women in Oakland, and you know there’s tons of corruption in the OPD  that has yet to be dealt with effectively. Also, it just causes more distrust and it’s actually supporting the gentrification process by continually pushing out Native Oakland folks or Black and Brown people…” (Delucchi). Delucchi has been a resident of Oakland for more than 40 years, is a community speaker, and an OUSD Teacher. This evidence illustrates that the Oakland community knows what’s going on around the police brutality and how it affects them. Police brutality helps kick Oakland natives out, helps create targets on certain races who can’t change their assigned identity, and causes distrust between our community and the people whose role is to protect us. Another interviewee stated, “ I don’t like my tax money going to people who beat up on people for no reason, it makes me feel like crap, to be honest with you, I don’t like to see people get hurt because of somebody’s ignorance” (Smith). Smith feels that police brutality does affect Oakland and the money he pays for taxes aren’t helping like they should. It makes him personally feel like crap because of this issue. Smith has been a resident of Oakland for more than 45 years and is a retired worker.

In Oakland, Police officers hurt Oakland residents physically and emotionally. Of course, when dealing with police brutality one is bound to have some scars, whether it be on your body or your heart. From a prisoner activist center website, it explains, “A Catholic priest who said an officer put him in a chokehold and slammed his head into a glass door. A father who claimed officers beat him in the hallway outside of his child’s hospital room until his head was bloody. A bank robber who was shot by officers after a high-speed chase. A man whose head was slammed into something so hard that the bones in his face broke” (Hyatt). These violent actions show the pain it creates here in our home. Each one of these cases were sued, which show that the people who were hurt needed to get back at the people who did do the opposite of their job, by hurting them. Coming from the same website, apparently, “$74 million dollars were spent on these cases to settle lawsuits” (Hyatt). Money that can be used to help our Oakland community is being used because of officers who decided to get violent. Another example of when police officers inflicted pain, was the Tupac Shakur case. According to KQED Arts, it states, “What’s not likely to be forgotten is the Oakland Police Department’s jaywalking stop of Tupac Shakur in October 1991, which resulted in Shakur allegedly slammed to the ground and arrested. That’s because in a rare early case of a rap artist suing the police, Shakur subsequently brought a $10 million civil suit against the OPD for their actions— and in an even rarer conclusion, the suit was settled for a reported $42,000.” (Meline). Money for Oakland is wasted on cases that shouldn’t come up at all between the citizens and the police department, and some of our Oakland Police leave marks some can be satisfactory but as of late they have been hurtful.

Police Brutality is an issue of corruption in the department or just the police themselves. When people think of police brutality they might think of how much they just hurt African Americans because how big that topic is on the news. Police brutality may largely affect that race, but Police brutality is more than just a cop beating a person up, or abusing their power. Coming from my interviewee, she said, “ (Do you think police brutality is based on Race? – interviewer)  I used to think that, all the time because I grew up in a segregated society. And I only witnessed it happening to one race, and that was African Americans. But now I see that it happens to any minority…. I think it’s just something in their head that they’re supposed to correct everybody, be in charge.” (Owen-Delucchi). Police brutality affects more groups rather than just one. Police officers in general, who are apart of police brutality, have a mindset that they have to be on top. Police attack community members majorly, for no reason. The hurtful police are very corrupted and that stems from the departments in which they work,  in my case the OPD is where the corruption is rooted. There are many others who believe this too, like kids in the #TakeAKnee stand, which was going against many topics including police brutality (Fernandez) and there are so many articles that will discuss Police Brutality in Oakland or anywhere else.

People might say that only the “bad” cops need to be punished, but that’s not it. It’s not just the “bad” cops that need to get in order, yet the whole system. The whole system affecting us in Oakland and citizens in the U.S, is institutional oppression. The Oakland Police Department system is really messed up. There are many problems within each Police system. Yet, obviously the cops who are apart of police brutality didn’t get trained in the best way to be our protectors or they were just violent people who shouldn’t have been let in the group in the first place, and that’s not just the system at fault but everyone contributing to police brutality. Not only the individual cop that abuses a person should get the entire blame but as I said before, everyone who is a contributor.

In conclusion, Police Brutality affects the Oakland community members largely because they cause physical and emotional harm. Some of the pain that impacts Oakland people with police brutality isn’t looked upon enough, so there are still so many problems. Also the corruption of the system causes the problems with police brutality. Police brutality should be looked into more by students as a way to educate themselves for future encounters with police and to help them decrease their fear of trust or being harmed by police.

How Does Police Brutality Affect The Community 

Over the years there has been multiple people killed by police officers for example,Yuvette Henderson, Demouria Hogg and Richard Linyard from Oakland, CA. Why don’t people in the community talk about police brutality? They don’t talk about it because they know it all leads back to oppression and racism. People of color have been dealing with more police brutality than other races. Police departments have been spending more money on cases rather than schools.

Oakland has been spending more money on lawsuits about police brutality than in schools, after school programs etc. For example in the article “Oakland Police Misconduct Cases Raise Questions on Oversight” they declare, “ In addition to the $13.6 millions, the departments invested millions in new technology such as body cameras,computer servers and computerized systems to help evaluate officer performances and adhere to the court agreement. In her 2015-17 budget, Mayor Libby Schaaf created two new auditor positions and a civilian director of internal affairs in the Police Department,which add up to $520,000 a year…. That’s a lot of money for a city like Oakland. It could have been spent on Head start programs” (San Francisco Chronicle). The mayor of Oakland has been spending more money in Police Departments in order for them to have better technology to better deal with crimes in a better way instead of the money going to schools, the money could be used to create better programs, sport teams etc. This source is credible because it is an established newspaper that is known and it’s from the Bay Area. All Oakland schools should provide after school programs which can help prevent more crimes. In the article “Benefits for Youth, Families and community” explained, “ Effective afterschool programs can improve classroom behavior, school attendance,academic aspiration  and can reduce the likelihood that a student will drop out” ( Many schools are still being affected by the budget cut that the district has made. If there are no teachers, programs etc, this all leads to students being exposed to a bad environment since they would not have any type of way to get the proper education they need. If students do go into a bad environment then it could all lead to police brutality.

On the other hand, if there was after school provided to students then they are less likely to commit crimes. This source is trustworthy because the person who wrote this article cleary interviewed different people from the community so they were diverse sources. Moreover, More People of Color have been killed than any other race. In the article, “The Long Painful History of Brutality in the US” by Katie Nodjimbadem, it explains “Blacks are 2.5 times as likely as white Americans to be shot and killed by police officers”(Nodjimbadem). This source is credible because the Katie N compared statistics from different places to one another to see how the rates of police brutality have grown. This article explains that People of Color are a bigger target than White folks. This brings back on how oppression keeps being an enormous problem. People in many communities don’t realize how much the oppression has grown. Even innocent People of Color have gotten killed. If People of Color are continuously being killed and police officers do not learn what they are doing is wrong. This situation later creates a bigger problem since most likely police officers have/will always have more power than anyone in the community. Us, as a community, should be able to speak up and not be scared of police officers. They should be able to hear our voices and how they should learn to protect the community not hurt others. Moreover, As stated by one of my interviewees, “ I am very against Police Brutality I think it’s sad how most of the time people getting killed are innocent,I think African Americans are a bigger target because if you see the news most of the time the people being killed are African Americans ” (Sanchez). Even people from the community in Oakland are justifying how African Americans are the bigger target. There has been protest about the racism that leads to Police Brutality but the community do not seem to listen. This source is credible because my interviewee is a resident from Oakland so she would understand how police brutality is a big deal in Oakland. As I interviewed a teacher from an Oakland Unified District school about police brutality Ms.Pippen stated, “I am against police brutality and I think it has to do with Police Officers not getting the proper training they need in order to prevent the violence that goes on, cops should be able to protect the community not hurt one another” (Pippen). Ms. Pippen explained how police brutality affects the community and that youth could be influenced with the violence that is going on and can lead to more violence. She is a credible source because she works in a high school were students of the Oakland Unified School District have been taught about depression and how we as a community can work harder to fight the oppression.Some may argue that spending money on body cameras and civilian could be good items because that way Police Departments can help with all of the criminal activities going on. In the article “ Study shows police body cameras are good for the community and for the police” talks about the many ways body cameras will help communities for example, “We believe the use of body cameras will strengthen community, improve accountability and transparency , protect our officers from false complaint and provide valuable evidence for prosecutors” (Walter Einenkel). Since there has been more body cameras there has been able to prevent more police brutality by seeing how the police officer and the person react to the problem they are having, which means less violence. It will also help inmates that are already in jail and they will be able to have more evidence if they are in trial whether they are guilty or not. This source is trustworthy because it specifically talks about camera bodies and the cameras actually help an environment with violence.

In conclusion, if there is less money for schools then the chances are higher for people to commit crimes that could lead to police brutality.

Oakland’s Police Department Untold Side by Alberto

“Did you know that African-Americans are 2.5 times more likely to be shot and killed by a Police officer than a White American?”(Nodjimbadem). Over the years there have been some police officers that have used unnecessary force, Bobby Hutton as an example. Police officers in Oakland aren’t what people think of them, comparable to rude and racist because in a interview that was done by Alberto Martinez showed a side of humanity that is not seen by the community.

The community doesn’t see the officer’s side, and is usually because the people never hear their side. In a interview with Officer Millian he said, “..I mean we’re…we are Police officers we’re not robots or anything like that…we’re normal people we’re married, kids, grandparents…we have dogs, we love sports” (Millian). This quote shows that cops make mistakes and part of those mistakes are part of Police Brutality. When Millian states that they are not robots, he is trying to point out that they are human beings with lives that have jobs who are trying to live another day. In the quote when it addresses that they are similar to us, he is just trying to show that the OPD aren’t different than us.

Another side that the community does not see is that the Police officers are coming from another place and are trying to build a bond with the community but they are not able to do that because the community sees the negative instead of the positive.An article published by Paul Harris on “TheGuardian” talked about the connection between the OPD and African-American community, “But it is the major incidents that really stand out when examining how OPD polices its community,… In 1968 OPD officers shot and killed Bobby Hutton…involved in a shootout with police, but surrendered and stripped down to his underwear to show he was unarmed….he died after being shot…12 times. That incident…set a tone of discord between OPD and large segments of the city’s black community that has lasted until the present day. Community activists say too many OPD officers live outside the city…separating themselves from Oakland’s daily life.” (Harris) This quote points out that a reason why there is police brutality in Oakland is because the bond or connection isn’t as strong. The connection between the OPD and African-American community isn’t at its best because the Police are outsiders, and when the Police use force on some of the community members. In the perspective of the community it is an act of disrespectfulness.

Additionally the officers that were interviewed by Alberto they both said that they wanted police brutality gone and that just because an officer makes a mistake not all officers are the same. They want to be viewed differently as Officer Millian stated, “…I think me and my partner…what our job here to do is to…be approachable just like what you guys were doing today…and just kinda let the public know that were out here and were normal people and we’re here to help out… you know we represent what the community…and what people people hear.”(Officer Millian) The quote clarifies that there are Police officers who want to connect with the community, be part of the community and they are there to help out the community in any way they can. Just because one officer makes a mistake doesn’t mean they all will. In a example that Officer Millian gave was that if someone were to hire a painter to paint their house and they do a horrible job at it does that mean all painters are bad. So that is something you should really keep in mind. Something Officer Maley said that really stood out during the interview was, “I think a lot of the community doesn’t know exactly the calls were getting so a lot of the times were getting calls of people armed with a bat, people armed with a knife…and when you get there that’s not what it is so were going into a call thinking someone is armed with an item so you’re running all these scenarios through your head and if that person doesn’t doesn’t drop the item…there is a possible…that use force right”(Officer Maley) The interviewee is stating the side that people don’t know about at all. If people knew more about important details on the calls, then people might not even complain about Police Brutality because then the community can get an understanding of what happens/why. With more people knowing this and getting to understand and see the side of the officers, then more than likely will people actually have a change in perspective about Police Brutality.

Some may argue that even though not all Police officers have a part in Police Brutality, others may think that they are still racist or use racial stereotypes to profile someone when arresting or pulling over a person. The Oakland Police Department had been under research by Stanford and they found out that the officers from the department use plenty of racial bias, “1 in 4 African American men were arrested compared to 1 in 15 White people were arrested…certain more words were used more frequently… we found for black stops words that are associated with “probation”, “parole”, “arrest”, and “jail time” (Judd). In this quote from a video it just gives and provides people with not only a perspective that the Police officers aren’t connected with the community. But also allows people dislike Police officers. This states that Police officers still aren’t ready to connect with the community and the community won’t be ready to trust the OPD.

Overall, Police officers aren’t always what people think, they are human and they have lives parallel everyone does but most importantly their voices aren’t always heard and without their perspective people will always see the same old dominant narrative of racist, unnecessary use of force by Oakland Police officers.

Violence has led to Killing by 

Lately people have been angry at police and claim that police don’t protect our environment, that they just kill black people because they look suspicious. “90 residents of Oakland have been killed by Law Enforcement Since 2000 and 74 percent were Black” (East Bay Express). Is that true? Where is the safe and quiet? Has it disappeared? Why? Has violence gotten worse or better?

The violence has created mass of hatred, racism, and killing. A parent from Oakland who I interviewed said “Everyday there is violence no matter what day it is nor time. Violence is something that occurs every single day and there is no day that nothing will happen. Over the past years that I have lived in Oakland, close to the Bart Station, violence to me has gotten worse and has created a dangerous environment for people to come out of their homes” (Salcedo). This points out that violence is a problem that has been going on for years and each day has just been getting worse. Violence in Oakland has already turned into Oaklands culture. Every second or every heartbeat that we create violence is not positive nor safe. People feel unsafe coming out their homes they feel like they’re gonna be attacked by people. Secondly, I did some research online that talks about black people getting killed by police just because of looking suspicious. East Bay Times, a local Oakland newspaper says, “ The shooting comes two days after the ninth anniversary of the fatal shooting of Oscar Grant by officer Johannes Mehserle on Jan. 1, 2009, at the Fruitvale Station” (Kelly). This explains that violence and racism towards Black people who have been killed by our own police just by looking suspicious, can you imagine how much hatred has there been against police as well a while ago people closed down the 880 freeway to protest because police were killing People of Color for no reason but because they looked suspicious. This also shows that violence has gotten out of control because if one person looks suspicious then people are most likely to be arrested or killed, and this is not right. Police shouldn’t be violent unless they have charges/proof against people. Looking back 90 residents from Oakland have been killed for being innocent since 2000, 18 years from now (East Bay Express).

Secondly, as proven, violence has been an issue and I believe that there are some solutions that will help Oakland be less violent. One solution is to train police to prevent stereotyping. People are scared because police are arresting people of color because they might seem suspicious. But, this is not fair if they have not actually done a crime. A quote that I had found talks about how violently. The Oakland police department explains that there has been less gun violence lately. The police department says, “Although, we have a very long way to go with eliminating violence in Oakland it is because of your hard work that lives were saved… As Dr. Cummings would say we have been moving rocks every day since September 14, 2012 to move the mountain of gun violence in Oakland”(Police Department). This points out, that  Oakland is creating a change for our community and is trying to make the community safer even though it’s going slowly but it’s better than nothing. This points out that if people keep on working to make violence less dangerous each year probably the rate of killing can lower down and might be a more comforting community and probably a more safe place. Additionally, I interviewed a Dean Of Students in Oakland asking her how can we make Oakland less violent? She responds, “We need to hold the police accountable when they kill black folks which is not happening and people need to see justice” (Trujillo). This points out that we can make Oakland less violent like Trujillo said we have to hold accountable the police because police are over reacting and are anxious about black people. This illustrates that the police should be more careful and should get to know the communities better and not make assumptions about people of color.

Additionally, violence is a problem that will keep on going on forever and it’s impossible to stop violence. However it can get less dangerous. Moreover, I had found an author called Loren Seibold who talks about people being violent and questioning if violence will ever end on earth. She says, “We try to contain those who commit violence; prisons have never been so full. And yet we cannot seem to imprison enough people to the end the violence! Some speculate that poverty leads to violent crime; but that theory is discounted by the observation that even wealthy people are capable of vicious behavior. The reason we can’t end violence is because it’s in our human hearts. Even if we could create a society in which everyone’s needs were fully met, some would still be violent” (Seibold). This proves that there will forever be violence on earth no matter if societies creates a change because of how Loren said that violence is in our human hearts. Also this shows that if we don’t change, violence will just keep on getting worse as the years/time keep on passing. As well if the police are not held responsible for their violence, one they’re not doing their job and they’re increasing violence.

In conclusion, police killing, nor other type of violence will never stop happening because violence is part of Oakland’s culture now. But the reason violence starts is because people do it on purpose to get there anger out against other people that are innocent just like the police killing people of color which is not fair because they’re killing lives that are extremely important to this world.

Annotated Bibliography for Oakland’s Police Department Untold Side

Harris, Paul. “Oakland police: controversial history sets tone for city’s discord.” The Guardian, Guardian News and Media, 26 Oct. 2011,

The article talks about the discord between OPD and the African-American community because of Bobby Hutton’s death and how that has affected the trust and bond between the OPD and Oakland’s community. It also states how the Oakland Police officers would also set up the African-Americans to make them seem “guilty” and be able to use force on them for their enjoyment. The Guardian is a really reliable source because their quality of investigative journalism is really outstanding. I also know that none of the topics they wrote about or published was ever thought as bogus or fake. All of their information has been as precise as possible and they don’t publish an article without knowing if the information is false.

Judd, Jackie . “Study slams troubled Oakland police department for racial bias.” PBS, Public Broadcasting Service, 15 June 2016,

The article was about how the Oakland Police Department might not use excessive force but that the officers use racial bias when they pull over an African-American. Stanford did a 2 year study on the Oakland Police Department and they told Jacki Judd the results and what they saw.

Jackie Judd was a journalist for NPR and CBS Radio News, she was active in the non-profit health care sector. She graduated from American University of Washington, D.C. with a bachelor’s degree in broadcast journalism and government. Thanks to her she was able to put a face on health care policy by making small documentaries. At Kaiser Family Foundation she spent 10 years as a Vice President moderating health care events

Maley, Officer . “Police Brutality Interview.” 9 Jan. 2018.

The interview took place on 23rd street and 12 E street. Anabel approached the officer in order for Alberto to be able to interview the Oakland Police officers. Officer Maley is really trustworthy source because not only is she an Oakland Police officer but she also lives in Oakland. She has lived in Oakland for 2 years and I know that, that is enough time to not only get to become part of Oakland but also know the city. When I interviewed her I asked her what she thought about it and how she felt from a officers perspective. She said that she believed Police brutality is not right. Towards the end she said that we are not so different from you we are also human beings.

Millian, Officer . “Police Brutality Interview.” 9 Jan. 2018.

Interview took place in 23rd street and 12 E street. Anabel approached the officer in order for Alberto to be able to interview the Oakland Police officers.When I interviewed Officer Millian he was extremely calm. As the interview went on he was hugely thoughtful of his responses and I was also really amazed. I had asked him the similar questions as Officer Maley and they were about the same responses. But there was a question I asked him, how he felt when people see one officer use unneeded force on a civilian and then everyone painted all officers with the same brush. He said, “I mean think about it this way…you hire a painter to paint your house but he does a bad job, that doesn’t meant all painters are bad painters it just means that specific painter is a bad painter” (Officer Millian). That response really just exploded my mind because even though that really true I just had never thought of it that way. I believe that Officer Millian is a strong reliable source because as stated with Officer Maley they are officers of Oakland. Officer Millian does live in Oakland, he has lived in Oakland for 4 years and over those year he has seen a ton of diversity over the years especially in the community by the Cesar Chavez school.

Nodjimbadem, Katie. “The Long, Painful History of Police Brutality in the U.S.”, Smithsonian Institution, 27 July 2017,

Katie wrote about the history of Police Brutality in the U.S.. She also wrote about the history of Police Departments and how they were established; there was also some information about how there were laws to get around Police Brutality and oppression without letting the U.S. see what was really going on. Katie Nodjimbadem is a immensely strong suitable source. She has a Bachelor’s in Science of Journalism and Magazine Journalism. That a big piece of evidence that shows Katie is not playing around with her articles because she worked her tail off for her Bachelor’s and she wouldn’t just write about something fake or imprecise, then posting it. She wouldn’t do that because her career as a journalist means a mass to her is she got a Bachelor’s in journalism.

Annotated Bibliography for Violence has led to Killing

Barreira, Alex, and Arielle Swedback. “Law Enforcement Killed 90 Oakland Residents Since 2000, And 74 Percent Were Black.” East Bay Express, East Bay Express, 18 Jan. 2018,

The article talks about how many people have been killed since 2000 by polices. Also it talks about that more people of color have been killed in Oakland than any other Cities. This source is credible because it talks about all the bay area and also it shows some people that have been killed for example it talks about Richard and people knew him as well as me which is not made up which makes it trustworthy.

Kelly, George. “BART police fatally shoot man near West Oakland station.” East Bay Times, East Bay Times, 4 Jan. 2018,

This article talks about black men getting killed in Fruitvale bart station one of them was injured and the other guy died. Also it talks about how the shooting camt two days after another black men getting killed at Fruitvale bart station too. This source is credible because it talks about all Oakland news and it shows up really quickly.

Oakland Police Department “Year-End Report.” Https://

This report talks about that this year there has been less homicide shootings since 1999. Also it talks about how they still have a long way of eliminating violence in Oakland. This report is trustworthy because it was from a police department in Oakland that everyone knows and especially that the department helps us as a community.

Salcedo, MariaElena. “Oakland Interview.” 11 Jan. 2018.

Maria talks about that since the fifteen years that she has lived here in Oakland violence has gotten worse every year that she has lived here. She also explains that there’s never been a day that can be calm there’s always something happening and even in the tv everything that happens comes out. She is a trustworthy person because she has lived in Oakland since fifteen years and has seen the differences over the years.

Trujillo Nicole. “Interview with Dean of Oakland Students.” 18 Jan. 2018.

Nicole talks about how Oakland police create crime but never take responsibility for themselves. Also she talks about how she wants to see justice. Nicole is trustworthy because I’ve known her for a long short of period and she knows about the police.

Seibold Loren. “Violence: Will it ever end?” HopeChannel, 15 Nov. 2015,

This article talks about how violence is going a lot deeper. Also it talks about how violence will never end and that violence lives in our humans. This source it trustworthy because she is a pastor and has her college degree.

Annotated Bibliography for It’s not just getting beaten up

Delucchi, Simone. “Police Brutality Interview.” 4 Jan. 2018.

Simone Delucchi talked about her own experiences with police brutality. She talked about how it affected Oakland and her. She also said some opinions of the police system in Oakland. Simone is a credible source because she is a OUSD teacher and an Oakland community speaker.

Delucchi, Alma Owen. “Police Brutality Interview .” 6 Jan. 2018.

Alma talked about her experiences with police brutality. She is an senior in the Oakland community and had lots to share. She talked about the Oakland police system and her opinions about that. She also shared some stories about times with the police. She’s a credible source because she’s a retired teacher of OUSD and she’s a living resident in Oakland.

Fernandez, Lisa. “Oakland students #TakeAKnee at A’s game to protest police brutality, the president.” Oakland students #TakeAKnee at A’s game to protest police brutality, the president, KTVU, 26 Sept. 2017, PDT,

Students from OUSD took a knee at the A’s game while playing the national anthem as a way to protest for many reasons, including police brutality. It refers back to the Colin Kaepernick situation and they wanted to support them, along with A’s catcher, Bruce Maxwell. This source is credible because students from the OUSD community did this and at an Oakland baseball game.

Hyatt, Abraham. “Oakland, CA Spent $74 Million Settling 417 Police Brutality Lawsuits.” Oakland, CA Spent $74 Million Settling 417 Police Brutality Lawsuits | Prison Activist Resource Center, Prison Activist Resource Center , 14 Apr. 2014,

This website has many people’s cases and the details of their times with police brutality (not the exact full details of each case just minor ones). It explains about how Oakland had to spend so much money because of these cases victims of Police brutality take to court. It also puts in about how Oakland usually settles with cases, and Oakland’s police system being compared to other data of cities in California. This source is credible because the website is a prisoner activist site and therefore they have a lot of information on these topics for their use and others.

Meline, Gabe. “Remembering the Time Tupac Shakur Sued the Oakland Police for $10 Million.” Remembering the Time Tupac Shakur Sued the Oakland Police for $10 Million, KQED Arts, KQED POP, 16 June 2016,

The website discusses Tupac’s opinion of the Oakland Police department. Some things Tupac mentioned are in an interview section. Tupac’s relations to Oakland are also said. This source is credible because Tupac was a resident of Oakland, claimed Oakland, and had a physical problem and court problem with the Oakland police before.

Smith, John . “Police Brutality Interview .” 6 Jan. 2018.

John Smith discussed about the corruption of the police system in Oakland. He also told me about some stories of his time in San Francisco dealing with the racist and police brutality in the 60s. He also mentioned his opinion of the Oakland Police brutality. He is a credible source because he is a current Oakland senior living resident.

Annotated Bibliography for How Does Police Brutality Affect The Community?
“Benefits for Youth, Families and Communities .” On January 16, 2018 I did research on how after school programs could be effective. It explained how schools are better off with after school programs because they help improve a students behavior. This source is credible because they are articles that are from the government, they have no reason to lie about statistics that make students react better.

Sanchez, Jennifer. “Police Brutality Interview .” 1 Jan. 2018.

On January 9th,2018 I interviewed a student that attends Oakland Unified School District. I was able to ask her what her perspective on police brutality was. She is a credible source because she has been learning about oppression, she is against something very serious and is part of the Oakland community which means she knows about the oppression going on.

“Study shows police body cameras are good for the community and for the police .” Daily Kos , 13 Oct. 2015,

On January 16 ,2018 I did research on how body cameras are helpful. For example on how the body cameras are able to capture every move in order to prevent Police Brutality.

Oakland Police misconduct cases raise questions on oversight .” San Francisco Chronicles , 10 July 2016,

On January 14 I did research on how the city of Oakland has been overspending on better items for the Oakland Police Department to use instead of the money being spent on after school programs etc. This source is credible because the San Francisco Chronicles is a newspaper that is very well known.

Police Brutality
Image Source: Quinn Dombrowski, Flickr, Creative Commons
Police brutality

“The Long Painful History of Brutality in the U.S.” Translated by Katie Nodjimbadem, “The Long Painful History of Brutality, Katie Nodjiml, 27 July 2017,

On January 8th,2018 I did research about Police Brutality I decided to go on this article because it was bringing back history of the US which leads to all of what is happening this year. This source is trustworthy because the date has been recent and has precise information.

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